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斯坦福大学的研究揭示了可持续减肥的秘密:揭示了行为和生物标志物

斯坦福大学的研究人员发现了可以预测个人减肥能力和长期保持减肥能力的生物标志物。 这些生物标志物包括来自肠道微生物组的特征、人体产生的蛋白质和呼出的二氧化碳水平。 研究发现,肠道中的细菌和身体产生的某些蛋白质的数量会影响一个人对减肥的耐受能力。 此外,研究发现,一些人在低脂饮食中减重更多,而另一些人在低碳水化合物饮食中有更好的效果。

对一项为期一年的减肥研究数据进行的新分析已经确定了有助于短期和长期减肥的行为和生物标志物。

严格的饮食——无论是健康的低碳水化合物饮食还是健康的低脂肪饮食——对前六个月的短期减肥很重要。 但是,保持长期减肥效果一年的人摄入的卡路里数量与那些在第二个六个月内体重恢复或没有减肥的人摄入的卡路里数量相同。

那么如何解释这种差异呢?

根据这项研究,生活在你肠道中的细菌和你身体产生的某些蛋白质的数量会影响你保持减肥的能力。 事实证明,有些人在低脂肪饮食中减掉了更多的体重,而其他人在低碳水化合物饮食中表现更好。

斯坦福大学医学院的研究人员已经确定了几种生物标志物,这些生物标志物可以预测一个人减肥和长期保持体重的能力。 这些生物标志物包括来自肠道微生物组的特征、人体产生的蛋白质和呼出的二氧化碳水平。 研究人员于 12 月 13 日在《自然》杂志上发表了他们的发现

“Weight loss is enigmatic and complicated, but we can predict from the outset with microbiome and metabolic biomarkers who will lose the most weight and who will keep it off,” said Michael Snyder, PhD, professor and chair of genetics and co-senior author on the paper.

Willpower does not drive weight loss

The data came from 609 participants who logged everything they ate for a year while following either a low-fat or low-carb diet made up of mostly high-quality, minimally processed foods. The researchers tracked participant exercise, how well they followed their diet, and the number of calories consumed.

The study showed that just cutting calories or exercising were not enough to sustain weight loss over a year. To try and understand why, the team turned their focus to biomarkers of metabolism.

“We found specific microbiome ecologies and amounts of proteins and enzymes at the beginning of the study period — before people started following the diet — that indicated whether they would be successful at losing weight and keeping it off,” said Dalia Perelman, research dietician and co-lead author on the paper.

Throughout the study, the researchers measured the ratio of inhaled oxygen to exhaled carbon dioxide, known as a respiratory quotient, which serves as a proxy for whether carbohydrates or fats are the body’s primary fuel. A lower ratio means the body burns more fat, while a higher ratio means it burns more carbohydrates. So, those who started the diet with a higher respiratory quotient lost more weight on a low-carb diet.

“There are people who can be eating very few calories but still sustain their weight because of how their bodies metabolize fuels. It is not for lack of will: It is just how their bodies work,” Perelman said.

In other words, if your body prefers carbs and you’re predominately eating fat, it will be much harder to metabolize and burn off those calories.

“If you are following a diet that worked for someone you know and it is not working for you, it might be that that specific diet is not as suited for you,” added Xiao Li, PhD, co-lead author of the paper, a former postdoctoral fellow at Stanford Medicine who is now at Case Western University.

For now, focus on nutrients

The predictive information gleaned from the gut microbiome, proteomic analysis, and respiratory quotient signatures is laying the foundation for personalized diets. Snyder said he thinks tracking amounts of certain gut microbe strains will be a way for people to determine which diets are best for weight loss.

We’re not there yet, so until then, according to the researchers, the focus should be on eating high-quality foods that are unprocessed and low in refined flours and sugar.

The research team identified specific nutrients that were correlated with weight loss during the first six months. Low-carb diets should be based on monounsaturated fats — such as those that come from avocados, rather than bacon — and high in vitamins K, C, and E. These vitamins are in vegetables, nuts, olives, and avocados. Low-fat diets should be high in fiber, such as is found in whole grains and beans, and avoid added sugars.

“Your mindset should be on what you can include in your diet instead of what you should exclude,” Perelman said. “Figure out how to eat more fiber, whether it is from beans, whole grains, nuts, or vegetables, instead of thinking you shouldn’t eat ice cream. Learn to cook and rely less on processed foods. If you pay attention to the quality of food in your diet, then you can forget about counting calories.”

Reference: “Distinct factors associated with short-term and long-term weight loss induced by low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet intervention” by Xiao Li, Dalia Perelman, Ariel K. Leong, Gabriela Fragiadakis, Christopher D. Gardner and Michael P. Snyder, 13 December 2022, Cell Reports Medicine.
DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100870

Christopher Gardner, professor of medicine and co-senior author on the paper, also contributed to this work.

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